Since acid rain events were monitored only at some stations, the analysis of temporal variations of acid rain was based on the 585 precipitation events that occurred at the 17 stations. Niu X(1), Wendt A(2), Li Z(3), Agarwal A(4), Xue L(4), Gonzales M(2), Brantley SL(2). Technically, the pH scale measures the logarithmic concentration of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions, which make up water (H+ + OH- = H20). David C. Powers , Andrew T. Higgs , Matt L. Obley , Phyllis A. Leber , Kenneth R. Hess , and ; Claude H. Yoder The damaging effects of acid rain have led to strong pressure on industry to minimize the release of harmful reactants. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. What’s more, rain pH levels can vary significantly over short distances and in a short amount of time, even during the same rainfall. 2009, January. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. No longer limited by geographic boundaries, acid causing emissions are causing problems all over the world. Distinguished Senior Scientist, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York. Some governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive results. Nitrogen deposition has decreased as well, but to a lesser extent. Also, sulfurous gases are discharged from erupted volcanoes and rotting vegetation. Effects of acid rain. Forests, lakes, and streams: Acid rain can cause widespread damage to trees. In acid-sensitive areas, acid rain also depletes soil of important plant nutrients and buffers, such as calcium and magnesium, and can release aluminum, bound to soil particles and rock, in its toxic dissolved form. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF THE ACID RAIN 55 Let W(t) be the number density of water droplets present in the atmosphere in the form of moisture, formed with the constant rate q, G(t) be the cumulative concentration of acid forming gases emitted with the cumulative rate Q, A(t)be the concentration of acid rain formed because of absorption of acid forming gases Neutralizing the threat of acid rain. Acid rain is not limited to the region where sources are located. For this reason, acid rain is considered a global problem. Rain and snow are not the only processes that deposit sulfur and nitrogen acids from the atmosphere to the ground. Acid rain is linked to both natural and man-made sources. Electric power generation accounted for 69 percent of total sulfur dioxide emissions in the U.S. in 2007 and 20 percent of nitrogen oxides, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The precursors, or chemical forerunners, of acid rain formation result from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) resulting from fossil fuel combustion. | Contacts | Home | Follow us: http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/arp/index.html. Acid rain is rainfall whose pH is less than 5.6, the value typically observed, due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. These chemicals react with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sunlight in the atmosphere to form sulfuric and nitric acids. Do the SWOT analysis of the Acid Rain: … Environmental analysis Acid Rain Environmental studies usually involve an analysis of precipitation and its response to pollution. Weekly samples are collected and sent to the NADP for analysis. First identified in 1872 in Sweden and studied in the U.S. beginning in the 1950s, acid rain is precipitation in the form of rain, snow, hail, dew, or fog that transports sulfur and nitrogen compounds from the high atmosphere to the ground. Acid Rain Case Study Solution & Analysis STEP 1: Reading Up Harvard Case Study Method Guide:. 2000. Although the problem of acid rain has been significantly reduced in some areas, it remains an important environmental issue within and downwind from major industrial and industrial agricultural regions worldwide. For some time, particularly during the 1980s, acid rain was by many considered to be one of the largest environmental threats of the time. That is why forests and lakes in the countryside can be harmed by acid rain that originates in cities. Although acid-rain gases may originate in urban areas, they are often carried for hundreds of miles in the atmosphere by winds into rural areas. Scientific evidence has linked acid rain to decreased fish and wildlife populations, degraded lakes and streams, and human health hazards. Most public water suppliers remove such dangerous chemicals at the plant, but tainted water could be a problem for residents who … Measuring Acid Rain Acidity and alkalinity are measured using a pH scale for which 7.0 is neutral. Acid Rain: The Southern Company (A) Case Analysis | Production Processes and Costs | Executive Summary In the year 1992, the Southern Company that held the Bowen plant, a coal-fired steam electric plant had to decide on the various options available to comply with … However, most public attention has been focused on man-made sources of acid rain, which include the burning of any fuel that contains sulfur and nitrogen compounds, including public utilities, industrial broilers, motor vehicles, and chemical plants. Summary. As a global environmental issue, it is frequently overshadowed by climate change. Changes in acidity can be caused by atmospheric deposition (acid rain or acid shock from snowmelt), surrounding rock, and wastewater discharges. Roots of natural vegetation and crops can become damaged due to stunted growth. As the pH number decreases, acidity increases. Acid rain is a major global environmental problem (Rodhe et al., 2002, Wai et al., 2005), and China is the third largest country polluted by acid rain in the world, after Europe and North America (Larssen et al., 2006), and the average pH value of acid rain in China ranges from 3.0 to 4.5 (Department EoCE, 2015, Wang et al., 2016a, Wang et al., 2016b2016b). C) there was a … Washington, D.C. (Additional information available at http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/arp/index.html). A global environmental issue, it is frequently overshadowed by climate change impacts of the pollution presence dissolved... If the amount of acid rain transport 0 to 14 has triggered a vast cascade of problems. 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